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DNA Resources


:: DNA Testing Facilities::

DNA Ancestry - offering both Paternal (Y-chromosome) and Maternal (mtDNA) tests.

Y-chromosome DNA

Also referred to as the Paternal Linage test or Y-DNA. The Y-chromosome is passed down from father to son, hence this test is only available for males. Females wishing to trace their paternal linage will therefore need a sample from their brother, father or male cousin. The Y-DNA test looks at specific regions of the Y-chromosome that are known to contain a series of repeating sequences called short tandem repeats.

Short Tandem Repeat (STR)

STRs are a series of repeating sequences of DNA molecules. These repeats are found in differing numbers amongst the male population and it’s the variations in the number of times these repeats occur which determine the results of the Y-DNA test. Test results include a count of these repeats at certain DNA Y-chromosome segments.

DNA Y-chromosome Segment or DYS number (DYS#)

Y-chromosome is referred to by markers or specific locations known as DNA Y-chromosome Segment numbers.

Depending on the number of markers tested, test results will include a table together with a corresponding value (also known as "allele"). Test results can then be compared to other researchers in order to determine how closely related they are to you. Matches for most recent common ancestor (MRCA) are estimates only with the more markers that are tested against meaning better results and higher probabilities for closer matches. Test results are also used to determine your haplogroup.

Haplogroup

Also referred to as the Paternal Ancient Ancestry, a persons Haplogroup will be predicted based on their Y-DNA results. It is worth noting that while a person’s haplogroup can often be inferred from their results, it can only be proven with a SNP test.

Results also include a detailed description of the group, and a map showing how your ancient ancestors migrated out of Africa over 100,000 years ago.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

Also referred to as the Maternal Linage test. mtDNA is passed from the mother to her male or female children. Children only inherit their mother's mtDNA as the father's mtDNA is destroyed at the time of fertilisation. mtDNA tests for portions known as hypervariable regions.

Hypervariable Region (HVR)

There are two mitochondrial hypervariable regions that are used for family history research known as HVR 1 & 2. HVR1 is considered a "low resolution" region and are numbered 16001 to 16568 inclusive. HVR2 is considered a "high resolution" region with locations numbered 001 to 574 inclusive. mtDNA sequences are then compared against a reference standard known as the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence.

Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS)

When mitochondrial DNA testing is used for genealogical purposes, the results are usually reported as "differences" from the revised CRS. Such differences are not necessarily mutations: the rCRS is a reference sequence rather than a record of the earliest human mtDNA.

Test results are displayed in a table that show three things; the location in the sequence, the reference nucleotide as stated in the rCRS, and the value of your nucleotide at the same location. The number and type of differences in the results are then used to determine your haplogroup.

Haplogroup

Also referred to as the Maternal Ancient Ancestry, a persons Haplogroup will be predicted based on their mtDNA results. It is worth noting that while a personís haplogroup can often be inferred from their results, it can only be proven with a SNP test.

Results also include a detailed description of the group, and a map showing how your ancient ancestors migrated out of Africa over 100,000 years ago.

Hawkesbury DNA Project

Now that you have your DNA, why not join our group and see if you can make a connection with other Hawkesbury pioneer families.

 

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